The term authorization refers to the granting of authority or permission.
The federal government uses the term authorization in reference to the granting of permission or authority for spending to fund a program or agency.
U.S. Senate Definition:
A statutory provision that obligates funding for a program or agency. An authorization may be effective for one year, a fixed number of years, or an indefinite period. An authorization may be for a definite amount of money or for "such sums as may be necessary." The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization and then appropriation.